comet

recoveries of comets in cooperation with the European Space Agency (ESA)

In cooperation with ESA about 25% of all worldwide Comet recoveries could be achieved, see statistic since 2014.

When a Comet was discovered, it becomes so faint after a while that it can not be observed for years or even decades. If the Comet is found again on its next return, after its aphelion passage, it counts as recovery. The recovery of the Comet increases the accuracy of the orbit calculation enormously and leads directly to its final numbering. The Comet can then be found much easier on its next return.

As volunteer Astronomer I have the opportunity to plan and analyze observations for a telescope of the Teide Observatory, the European Space Agency’s Optical Ground Station (ESA OGS), on the Spanish Canary Island of Tenerife. Since 2012, I am responsible for the recoveries of potentially hazardous asteroids and comets in a team of professional Astronomers and experienced Amateurs. The project is supported by the „Space Situational Awareness Programme“ of the European Space Agency (ESA). The main focus of the project are Near Earth Objects (NEOs). From September 2012 to July 2016 more than 50 NEOs were recovered. If there is no suitable NEO for a recovery campaign then will be tried to recover a Comet.

Since December 2016 I have the additional possibility to use remote controlled the Schmidt Telescope at Calar Alto (Spain) which was formerly known as Großer-Hamburger-Schmidt. The access was funded by the European Space Agency (ESA). The Calar Alto Observatory is operated jointly by the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (MPIA) in Heidelberg, Germany, and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC) in Granada, Spain.

The recoveries of the following Comets were successful at ESA OGS and Calar Alto Schmidt (one Comet were deliberate recovered by Marco Micheli and one incidental by the TOTAS-Survey, all others are on my credit):

Issued 2021 Aug. 22 – deliberate recovery at Calar Alto Schmidt
COMET P/2021 Q1 = P/2014 W12 (Gibbs) = 4??P -> M.P.E.C. 2021-Q47
Central Bureau Electronic Telegrams of IAU, No. 5025 (2021).

Issued 2021 Mar. 16 – deliberate recovery at Calar Alto Schmidt
COMET P/2021 E1 = P/2009 Q1 (Hill) = 420P -> M.P.E.C. 2021-F07
Central Bureau Electronic Telegrams of IAU, No. 4943 (2021).

Issued 2021 Feb. 16 – deliberate recovery at Calar Alto Schmidt
COMET P/2021 A11 = P/2015 F1 (PANSTARRS) = 419P -> M.P.E.C. 2021-D104
Central Bureau Electronic Telegrams of IAU, No. 4933 (2021).

Issued 2021 Jan. 22 – deliberate recovery at Calar Alto Schmidt
COMET P/2021 B1 = P/2015 J3 (NEOWISE) = 417P -> M.P.E.C. 2021-B118
Central Bureau Electronic Telegrams of IAU, No. 4920 (2021).

Issued 2021 Jan. 17 – deliberate recovery at Calar Alto Schmidt
COMET P/2021 A8 = P/2013 A2 (Scotti) = 416P -> M.P.E.C. 2021-B21
Central Bureau Electronic Telegrams of IAU, No. 4919 (2021).

Issued 2021 Jan. 16 – deliberate recovery at Calar Alto Schmidt
COMET P/2020 Y4 = P/2013 EW90 (Tenagra) = 415P -> M.P.E.C. 2021-B17
Central Bureau Electronic Telegrams of IAU, No. 4918 (2021).

Issued 2021 Jan. 11 – deliberate recovery at Calar Alto Schmidt
COMET P/2020 W4 = P/2014 E1 (LARSON) = 413P -> M.P.E.C. 2021-A147
Central Bureau Electronic Telegrams of IAU, No. 4910 (2021).

Issued 2021 Jan. 07 – deliberate recovery at Calar Alto Schmidt
COMET P/2020 W3 = P/2007 B1 (Christensen) = 411P -> M.P.E.C. 2021-A66
Central Bureau Electronic Telegrams of IAU, No. 4903 (2021).

Issued 2020 Oct. 25 – deliberate recovery at Calar Alto Schmidt
COMET P/2020 U1 = P/2013 TL117 (LEMMON) = 405P -> M.P.E.C. 2020-U231
Central Bureau Electronic Telegrams of IAU, No. 4874 (2020).

Issued 2020 Sep. 14 – deliberate recovery at Calar Alto Schmidt
COMET P/2020 R3 = P/2006 H1 (McNaught) = 401P -> M.P.E.C 2020-R159
Central Bureau Electronic Telegrams of IAU, No. 4847 (2020).

Issued 2020 Aug. 19 – deliberate recovery at Calar Alto Schmidt and ESA OGS
COMET P/2020 Q3 = P/2002 T5 (LINEAR) = 402P -> M.P.E.C 2020-S155
Central Bureau Electronic Telegrams of IAU, No. 4835 (2020).

Issued 2020 Apr. 28 – deliberate recovery at ESA OGS
COMET 2020 H1 = P/2005 JD108 (Catalina-NEAT) = 395P -> M.P.E.C 2020-H202
Central Bureau Electronic Telegrams of IAU, No. 4758 (2020).
Animation of recovery images

Issued 2019 Aug. – no recovery because 7th return, observed at Calar Alto Schmidt
Comet 76P/West-Kohoutek-Ikemura first observed on its 7th return after discovery.

The observation was made with the same telescope, which Mr. Kohoutek used for his discovery in 1975. At that time the telescope was still at Hamburg-Bergedorf Observatory.
Animation

Issued 2019 June 3 – deliberate recovery at Calar Alto Schmidt
COMET P/2019 K3 = P/2007 R1 (LARSON) = 382P -> M.P.E.C 2019-L42
Central Bureau Electronic Telegrams of IAU, No. 4635 (2019).

Issued 2019 Mar. 18 – deliberate recovery at ESA OGS
COMET P/2019 E2 = P/2005 Y2 (McNAUGHT) = 378P -> M.P.E.C 2019-F27
Central Bureau Electronic Telegrams of IAU, No. 4613 (2019).

Issued 2019 Mar. 10 – deliberate recovery at ESA OGS
COMET P/2019 E1 = P/2003 L1 (Scotti) = 377P -> M.P.E.C 2019-E80
Central Bureau Electronic Telegrams of IAU, No. 4612 (2019).
Animation of recovery images
difference of ephemeris to prediction: 0.28 arcminutes (MPC-prediction), 0.77 arcminutes (NASA-JPL-prediction)

Issued 2018 Dec. 6 – deliberate recovery at ESA OGS
COMET P/2018 X1 = P/2005 GF8 (LONEOS) = 376P -> M.P.E.C 2018-X49
Central Bureau Electronic Telegrams of IAU, No. 4581 (2018).
Animation of recovery images
difference of ephemeris to prediction: 13.5 arcminutes (MPC-prediction), 16.9 arcminutes (NASA-JPL-prediction)

Issued 2018 Sept. 8 – deliberate recovery at ESA OGS
COMET P/2018 R1 = P/2001 R6 (LINEAR-Skiff) = 371P -> M.P.E.C 2018-R59
Central Bureau Electronic Telegrams of IAU, No. 4552 (2018).
Animation of recovery images
difference of ephemeris to prediction: 13.1 arcminutes (MPC-prediction), 8.9 arcminutes (NASA-JPL-prediction)

Issued 2018 Aug. 14 – deliberate recovery at ESA OGS
COMET P/2018 P2 = P/2001 T3 (NEAT) = 370P -> M.P.E.C 2018-P81
Central Bureau Electronic Telegrams of IAU, No. 4539 (2018).
Animation of recovery images
difference of ephemeris to prediction: 17.9 arcminutes (MPC-prediction), 12.5 arcminutes (NASA-JPL-prediction)

Issued 2018 Aug. 14 – deliberate recovery at ESA OGS
COMET P/2018 P1 = P/2010 A1 (Hill) = 369P -> M.P.E.C 2018-P80
Central Bureau Electronic Telegrams of IAU, No. 4538 (2018).
Animation of recovery Images
difference of ephemeris to prediction: 24.6 arcminutes (MPC-prediction), 27.5 arcminutes (NASA-JPL-prediction)

Issued 2018 June 14 – deliberate recovery at ESA OGS
COMET P/2018 L3 = P/2005 R1 (NEAT) = 368P -> M.P.E.C 2018-L76
Central Bureau Electronic Telegrams of IAU, No. 4526 (2018).
Animation of recovery Images
difference of ephemeris to prediction: 5.8 arcminutes (MPC-prediction), 5.2 arcminutes (NASA-JPL-prediction)

Issued 2018 Apr. 18 – deliberate recovery at Calar Alto Schmidt=> Calar Alto News
COMET P/2018 H1 = P/2011 CR42 (CATALINA) = 367P -> M.P.E.C 2018-H30
Central Bureau Electronic Telegrams of IAU, No. 4510 (2018).
difference of ephemeris to prediction: 6.5 arcminutes (MPC-prediction), 5.8 arcminutes (NASA-JPL-prediction)

Issued 2018 Mar. 21 – deliberate recovery at ESA OGS and Calar Alto Schmidt
Comet P/2018 F2 = P/2005 JN (SPACEWATCH) = 366P -> M.P.E.C 2018-F85
Central Bureau Electronic Telegrams of IAU, No. 4497 (2018).
Animation of recovery Images
difference of ephemeris to prediction: 24.6 arcminutes (MPC-prediction), 0.9 arcminutes (NASA-JPL-prediction)

Issued 2018 Jan. 17 – deliberate recovery at Calar Alto Schmidt
Comet P/2018 A2 = P/2013 CU129 (PANSTARRS) = 364P -> M.P.E.C 2018-B14
Central Bureau Electronic Telegrams of IAU, No. 4474 (2018).
Animation of recovery images
difference of ephemeris to prediction: 1.2 arcminutes (NASA-JPL-prediction)

Issued 2017 Nov. 19 – deliberate recovery at ESA OGS and Calar Alto Schmidt
Comet P/2017 W1 = P/2011 VJ5 (LEMMON) = 363P -> M.P.E.C 2017-W73
Central Bureau Electronic Telegrams of IAU, No. 4455 (2017).
Animation of recovery images
difference of ephemeris to prediction: 11.1 arcminutes (NASA-JPL-prediction)

Issued 2017 Sept. 20 – deliberate recovery at ESA OGS and Calar Alto Schmidt
Comet P/2017 S1 = P/2010 P4 (WISE) = 360P -> M.P.E.C 2017-S90
Central Bureau Electronic Telegrams of IAU, No. 4429 (2017).
Animation of recovery images
difference of ephemeris to prediction: 8.0 arcminutes (MPC-prediction), 3.4 arcminutes (NASA-JPL-prediction)

Issued 2017 June 22 – deliberate recovery at ESA OGS
Comet 2017 M2 = P/2004 T1 (LINEAR-NEAT) = 355P -> M.P.E.C 2017-M40
Central Bureau Electronic Telegrams of IAU, No. 4406 (2017).
Animation of recovery Images
difference of ephemeris to prediction: 16.6 arcminutes (NASA-JPL-prediction)

Issued 2016 July 4 – deliberate recovery at ESA OGS
Comet P/2016 N1 = P/2008 J3 (McNAUGHT) = 338P -> M.P.E.C. 2016-N12
Central Bureau Electronic Telegrams of IAU, No. 4288 (2016).
Animation of recovery Images
difference of ephemeris to prediction: 15.6 arcminutes (MPC-prediction), 12.3 arcminutes (NASA-JPL-prediction)

Issued 2016 June 5 – identification found after targeted recovery at ESA OGS
Comet 2016 GE216 = P/2010 N1 (WISE) = 337P -> M.P.E.C. 2016-L36
Central Bureau Electronic Telegrams of IAU, No. 4283 (2016).
Animation of images which verified the identification and long exposure image
difference of ephemeris to prediction: 1.26° (MPC-prediction), 0.75° (NASA-JPL-prediction), 3 Fields along uncertainty line needed

Issued 2016 Feb. 5 – deliberate recovery at ESA OGS
Comet P/2016 A9 = P/2008 Y2 (Gibbs) = 335P -> M.P.E.C 2016-C42
Central Bureau Electronic Telegrams of IAU, No. 4253 (2016).
Animation of recovery images
difference of ephemeris to prediction: 1.8 arcminutes (MPC-prediction), 2.0 arcminutes (NASA-JPL-prediction)

Issued 2016 Jan. 11 – deliberate recovery at ESA OGS
Comet P/2016 A4 = P/2001 F1 (NEAT) = 334P -> M.P.E.C 2016-A105
Central Bureau Electronic Telegrams of IAU, No. 4237 (2016).
Animation of recovery images
difference of ephemeris to prediction: 4.5 arcminutes (MPC-prediction), 3.9 arcminutes (NASA-JPL-prediction)

Issued 2014 Nov. 19 – deliberate recovery at ESA OGS by team member Marco Micheli
2014 U5 = P/2005 RV25 (LONEOS-Christensen) = 316P-> M.P.E.C 2014-W19
Central Bureau Electronic Telegrams of IAU No. 4017 (2014).

Issued 2014 July 30 – deliberate recovery at ESA OGS
Comet P/2014 O2 = P/1997 T3 (Lagerkvist-Carsenty) = 308P -> M.P.E.C 2014-O65
Central Bureau Electronic Telegrams of IAU, No. 3925 (2014).
Animation of recovery images and story of recovery
difference of ephemeris to prediction: 10 arcminutes (MPC-prediction)

Issued 2014 July 25 – accidental recovery at ESA OGS by TOTAS-Survey (Software and planning by Matthias Busch, object visually processed by Felix Hormuth)
Comet 2014 O1 = P/2000 QJ46 (LINEAR) = 307P -> M.P.E.C 2014-O44
Central Bureau Electronic Telegrams of IAU No. 3923 (2014).
Animation of recovery images

Issued 2014 June 2 – deliberate recovery at ESA OGS
Comet P/2014 L1 = P/2003 U3 (NEAT) = 303P -> M.P.E.C 2014-L12
Central Bureau Electronic Telegrams of IAU, No. 3887 (2014).
Animation of recovery images
difference of ephemeris to prediction: 0.61° (MPC-prediction), 3 Fields along uncertainty line needed